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imperial War Museum : London, United Kingdom

imperial War Museum
The Imperial War Museum (IWM) is an organization of the British National Museum with branches in five locations in England, three of which are in London. Established in 1917 as the Imperial War Museum, the museum aims to record the efforts and sacrifices of Britain and its empire in civil and military warfare during World War I. The museum has since expanded its review to cover all conflicts that have involved British or Commonwealth forces since 1914. By 2012, the museum aims to "encourage and provide a study and understanding of the history of modern warfare." 'Wartime experience'.

The original collections of the Imperial War Museum are similar to those collected by the National War Museum Committee. The current departmental organization emerged as part of the reorganization of the Frankland Museum during the 1960s. Oral history gained popularity in the 1970s, and in 1972 the museum created the South Records Department (now the Sound Archive) to record interviews with people who had experienced World War I. The museum maintains an online database of its archives.


The museum's archive seeks to collect and preserve the private letters of those who have experienced modern warfare. The collection includes letters, diaries and memoirs of senior British and Commonwealth Army, Navy and Air Force officers, as well as memoirs of lower-ranking soldiers and civilians. The collection includes papers by Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery and Sir John French. The archive also includes large archives of foreign documents, such as the German office that seized World War I documents, before the Cabinet Office was housed in the Historical Section, the Air Historical Branch and other British government agencies. The overseas collection also includes Japanese material transferred from the Cabinet Office. The collection also includes files of Victoria and George Cross recipients and letters from the BBC documentary The Great War. The collection of documents also includes the UK Memorial of War Memorial. In 2012, the museum reported a collection of documents that included 24,800 collections of papers.

The museum's art collection includes paintings, prints, paintings, sculptures and works in film, photography and sound. The collection dates back to World War I, when the museum carried out its work through the British War Memorial Committee of the Ministry of Information. By the early 1920s, the art collection had contained more than 3,000 works, including Sergeant John Singer, Windum Lewis, John Nash and Christopher Newson. Major works in World War I include Sergeant Gassad and other works in the Memorial Reconstruction Hall. The collection was re-expanded after World War II after receiving thousands of applications from the Advisory Committee on Information. In 1972, the museum established the Artistic Records Committee (renamed the Arts Commission Committee) to commission artists to cover contemporary controversies. The commissioned artists include Ken Island, Linda Kitson, John Kane, Peter Hausen, Steve McQueen and Langlands & Bell, responding to conflicts in Northern Ireland, the Falklands, the Persian Gulf, Bosnia, Iraq and Afghanistan. The collection includes more than 20,000 items of promotional materials, such as World War II posters, postcards, and announcements, and recent material such as posters issued by anti-war organizations such as the Disarmament of Nuclear Weapons and the Stop the War Coalition. ۔ The museum's collection is on display in digital resources such as the Visual Arts Data Service (VADS), and the Google Art Project.

The museum has occupied the former Jerusalem Royal Hospital on Lambeth Road since 1936. The hospital building was designed by Hospital Surveyor James Lewis with proposals from John Gandhi and other architects, and was completed in October 1814. 580 feet long with a basement and one floor below the main entrance, a basement and a three-story boundary of buildings.


The building was largely converted in 1835 by the architect Sidney Summerke. To provide more space, they added blocks at both ends of the frontage, and flanked the glazed wings on either side of the center. He also built a small one-story lodge at the gate of Lambeth Road. Later, between 1844–46, the central copula at the bottom of the chapel was replaced by a copper dome. A theater was also seen in a building behind the site.

The building did not change much until the hospital vacated it in 1930. After being purchased freehold by Lord Ruthermeier, the original central part (the dome now looks surprisingly tall) and the wings were demolished to release the post-warmer wings. When the museum moved into the building in 1936, the Central Art Gallery occupied the ground floor of the central part, which housed the East Wing Housing Naval Gallery and the West Wing Army Gallery. The Air Force Gallery was housed in the former Theater. The first floor contains an art gallery (rooms reserved for Sir William Orpen and Sir John Lowry), an exhibition of women's war works and exhibitions on transportation and gestures. The museum's collection of photographs was also housed on the first floor. The second floor has a museum library in its west wing and map collection and drawings in the east wing. Performance of this service, and through civil or military activity, continued to a wide range of galleries from the 1960s. The building received second-degree status in September 1972.


The original hospital building is now occupied by a large number of corporate offices. The 1966 expansion included libraries, art stores and archives of documents, while the development project of the 1980s created a five-story exhibition space. The first phase created 8,000 m2 of gallery space, of which 4,600 m2 was new, and the second phase provided 1,600 m2. The final phase, Southwest Anfel, was partially funded by a لا 12.6 million grant from the Heritage Lottery Fund, with 5,860m2 of space and educational facilities in a six-story gallery. Prior to the 2013–14 renovation project, the basement was occupied by permanent galleries during the First and Second World Wars and the conflicts after 1945. The ground floor includes an atrium, a cinema, a temporary exhibition site and meeting facilities. The first floor included atrium mezzanines, educational facilities, and a permanent gallery, covert warfare, special forces searches, espionage, and covert operations. The second floor included an atrium viewing balcony, two art galleries, a temporary exhibition area and permanent crimes against the display of humanity. The third floor has a permanent Holocaust exhibition, and the fourth floor, the rooftop dome, which houses the Lord Eschat Gallery. The gallery, which opened in November 2010, exhibits the museum's collections of Victoria Cross (VC) and George Cross, with a total of 241 medals, collected by the private vice chancellor through Michael Asherft. The third floor has a permanent Holocaust exhibition, and the fourth floor, the rooftop dome, which houses the Lord Eschat Gallery. The gallery, which opened in November 2010, exhibits the museum's collections of Victoria Cross (VC) and George Cross, with a total of 241 medals, collected by the private vice chancellor through Michael Asherft. The third floor has a permanent Holocaust exhibition, and the fourth floor, the rooftop dome, which houses the Lord Eschat Gallery. The gallery, which opened in November 2010, exhibits the museum's collections of Victoria Cross (VC) and George Cross, with a total of 241 medals, collected by the private vice chancellor through Michael Asherft.

The museum's film and video archive is one of the world's oldest film documents. The collection includes a series of historically important film and video material, including the official British film record of World War I. Notable among the collections held during World War I are the famous 1916 documentary (written in the 2005 UNESCO Memory of the World Register), and the Der Magshe Gertel, the German 1917 submarine U promotional film. -35. The collection includes a one-sided film from World War II, shot by a British military cameraman, documenting military operations such as the British landing on D-Day in June 1944 and Bergen Belsen in April 1945. Freedom of concentration camp. The collection also features official information films and promotions such as Target for Tonight and Desert Vijay. Post-World War II collections include material on the Korean War, Cold War material, the former NATO Film Library, and material produced by the United Nations TV Service in Bosnia. Materials continue to be received from the Ministry of Defense as a public repository under the Public Records Act of 1958. The collection also aims to capture amateur film taken by both service personnel and civilian cameramen. The material in this collection was used to make several popular TV documentaries, including The World War and The World at War. In 2012, the museum announced the size of the film's collection of more than 23,000 hours of film, video and digital footage.

The museum's photo archive includes photographs of government, amateur and professional photographers. The collection includes official British photographic records of the two world wars. World War I collections include the work of photographers such as Ernest Brooks and John Warwick Brook. This collection contains 1.5 million British aerial photographs from World War I, the largest of its kind. World War II collections include the work of photographers such as Bill Brandt, Cecil Baton and Bert Hardy. Like the Film Archive, the Photography Archive is an official repository under the Public Records Act of 1958, and thus receives material from the Ministry of Defense. In 2012, the museum reported the volume of its photographic holdings as approximately 11 million photographs in 17,263 collections.

The museum's collection collection includes a wide range of items, including uniforms, badges, ashtrays and flags (Canada's Red Squadron on Wyoming Ridge in 1917, a union surrendering to Singapore in 1942). Another flag was found in the rubble of the World Trade Center after the 9/11 attacks. Trench art such as personal gifts, presents and musculoskeletal. Orders, medals and decorations (including a collection of Victoria and George Cross). Military equipment سامان Firearms and ammunition, weapons, sharp weapons, clubs (such as trench clubs) and other weapons, and vehicles, planes and airplanes. The museum has a national collection of modern weapons. The stockpile of firearms includes a rifle used by TE Lawrence, and an automatic pistol owned by Winston Churchill. The arsenal includes artillery pieces that take part in significant battles, such as the Neri gun, a field gun used during the Neri operation in 1914, and equipment seized from enemy forces. The museum's collection of vehicles includes the first bill, a bus used by the British Army in World War I, and several vehicles used by Field Marshal Montgomery during World War II. The museum's aircraft archive includes notable aircraft for their delicacy, such as the only and complete Royal Aircraft Factory RE8 in existence, and one of only two surviving TSR-2 strike aircraft, and Aircraft with special functions. , Such as the Superlean Spotfire fired during the British War. The museum's maritime collection includes the HM Coastal Motor Boat 4 and a dwarf submarine HMS XE8. In 2012, the museum announced its exhibit collection, which included 155,000 items and 357 vehicles and aircraft.


The museum's library is a national reference on modern conflicts, and deals with all aspects of warfare, including regimental or unit history (such as 789 rare German unit histories from World War I), technical manuals, biographical materials and war work. happens. does. Social, cultural, economic, political and military aspects. The library also has imperial war museum stamp collections, booklets and ration books, printed announcements, newspapers, trench magazines (such as Viper Times) and printed gates with trench maps. In 2012, the museum reported the publication of more than 80,000 items of historical significance (such as maps, announcements and rare books) and more than 254,000 reference materials in its library's archives.

The museum's sound archive contains 33,000 audio recordings, including a large collection of witnesses recording oral histories of conflicts since 1914. The museum's sound collection began in 1972 with the creation of the Department of Audio Records and the Oral History Program. The soundtrack opened to the public in July 1977. The collection also includes recordings by the BBC during World War II, sound effects of reality, broadcasts, speeches and poetry. As part of the museum's centennial program of World War I, the museum is presenting World War I voices, a podcast series on recordings of the museum's oral history. In 2012, the museum increased its voice collection to 37,000 hours.

The Imperial War Museum is a non-departmental public institution under the Department of Culture, Media and Sports, funded in the form of a grant-in-aid. The management of the museum is the responsibility of the Board of Trustees, which was originally amended by the Imperial War Museum Act 1955 and later by the Imperial War Museum Act and the Museum and Gallery Act 1992 and other relevant laws. The Board consists of a Chairman (currently Prince Edward, Duke of Kent), appointed by an independent, and fourteen-member Prime Minister, and in various proportions by the Secretary of State for Defense, Defense and Culture. The other seven members are the Commonwealth High Commissioner, a former official appointed by their respective governments. As of January 2012, the trustees are headed by Sir Francis Richards and have Deputy Lt. Gen. Sir John Casey. Past presidents include Admiral Sir Derek Holland Martin (1967–77), Admiral of Flat Sir Elgren Wills and Marshal Mar John Grande of the Royal Air Force (Trustee 1971–78, Chairman 1978–89). Grande commanded RAF Duxford during World War II, and he was chairman during the planning of the American Air Museum Duxford, which opened in 1997.


The director general of the museum is accountable to the trustee and serves as the accounting officer. Since 1917, the museum has had six directors. The first was Sir Martin Conway, a famous art historian, climber and explorer. He was knighted in 1895 for his efforts to map the Karakoram Range in the Himalayas, and was Professor of Fine Arts at Cambridge University from 1901 to 1904. Succeeded by Leslie Bradley. Bradley served in the Middlesex Regiment in World War I before the invasion in 1917. He later became acquainted with Charles Phuleux, who invited him to join the museum, where he was initially collecting museum posters. Bradley retired in 1960 and dress. Noble was replaced by Frankland. Frankland served as a sailor in the RAF Bomber Command, which won the Distinguished Flying Cross. A Cabinet Office historian co-authored a controversial official history of the RAF strategic air campaign against Germany. Frankland retired in 1982 and Drs. Allen was replaced by Borg, previously at the Center for the Visual Arts. Borg moved to the Victoria and Albert Museum in 1995 and was replaced by Sir Robert Crawford, who was originally hired by Frankland in 1968 as a research assistant. After Crawford retired in 2008, he was replaced by Diane Les, former director of the Wendy Museum. As a child, she became known in the media as the first woman to head the British National Museum.

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